The two molecules rouse different immune cells. The DNA snippet stimulates dendritic cells, which help instigate counterattacks against tumors. OX40 functions as a throttle for T cells, another type of immune cell crucial for battling tumors, and the anti-OX40 antibodies rev up these cells.
Levy and his colleagues also tested the approach in a strain of mouse prone to breast tumors. If the animals harbored two tumors, injecting the mixture into one tumor curbed the growth of the second. Moreover, the combo prevented any new breast tumors from appearing.
“We think that this particular combination will be very effective in patients,” Levy says. He predicts that it could work against a variety of cancers. Because the combination destroys other tumors besides the injected one, it might eliminate metastases, or the secondary tumors that result when cancer spreads, he says.
“The data is very impressive, particularly for the uninjected tumors,” says cancer immunologist Drew Pardoll of the Bloomberg-Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy in Baltimore, Maryland, who wasn’t connected to the study. The researchers “deserve a lot of credit” for testing the approach in the mice that spontaneously develop breast tumors, he says, which more closely mimic how cancer arises in humans.
The big question is whether the approach works in people, as most rodent cancer therapies don’t translate to humans. Levy and his colleagues are about to find out. They are launching a clinical trial to evaluate the safety of their approach and gauge its effectiveness in patients with lymphoma, a cancer of the lymphatic system.