文章
癌症的誘因 > 研究發現癌症常由不到10個基因突變造成

研究發現癌症常由不到10個基因突變造成

21-10-2017

 

一項新研究19日説,平均而言,導致一種癌症發生的基因變異數量介于1到10個之間。

  這項發表在新一期美國《細胞》雜志上的研究説,對不同癌症類型,所需的致癌基因突變數量大不相同。比如,肝癌大約需要4個突變,而結腸直腸癌需要10個突變。

  “我們解答了自20世紀50年代以來癌症研究領域一個長期爭論的問題:一個正常細胞需要多少個(基因)突變變成癌細胞?”研究負責人、英國桑格研究所的彼得·坎貝爾在一份聲明中説,“我們的答案是:少數幾個就夠了。”

  研究人員採用分子進化相關方法,對29種癌症的7664個腫瘤樣本進行分析後得出上述結論。

  該研究還發現,這些關鍵性致癌突變幾乎有一半發生在尚未被確定與癌症相關的基因中,説明更多致癌基因仍有待被發現。

 

http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-us/cancer-news/

 

‘A handful’ of gene faults can turn a healthy cell cancerous

 

Fewer than 10 errors in the DNA inside cells are enough to drive development of a cancer, according to new estimates. 

Researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute found that different types of cancer are triggered by a different number of genetic changes (mutations).

“The most surprising finding from this research was that most genetic faults didn’t harm the cell but rather accumulated over time.” – Dr Nicholas McGranahan, Cancer Research UK

Professor Sir Mike Stratton, director of the institute, said the research shows that a small number of mutated genes are responsible for converting a single normal cell into a cancer cell. The specific genes that are affected vary according to cancer type.

Cancers evolve in a similar way to species, with some genetic faults helping the cell survive, and some holding it back or causing it to die.

Dr Nicholas McGranahan, an expert in cancer evolution from the Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence at the UCL Cancer Institute, said that using ideas from species evolution can help scientists work out the genetic faults that cause a cancer to grow.

The researchers looked at the patterns of genetic changes of 7,664 tumours spanning 29 types of cancer. They found that on average tumours have around 4 genetic faults that drive them. 

The results are published in the journal Cell(link is external).

Testicular and thyroid cancers were among those that needed the fewest faults to develop (less than 1 on average), while melanoma, bowel and endometrial cancers needed the most (more than 10 on average).

“The most surprising finding from this research was that most genetic faults didn’t harm the cell but rather accumulated over time,” said McGranahan.

While it’s known that hundreds of genes can become faulty and fuel growing cancers, around half of the faults found in the study were in genes that haven’t yet been linked to cancer. 

Stratton said these genes will be the target of future studies. 

“This increasingly precise understanding of the underlying changes that result in cancer provides the foundation for the discovery and use of targeted therapies that treat the disease," he said. 

Dr Peter Campbell, who led the study, said they had addressed a long-standing question. In relation to how many mutations are needed for a normal cell to turn into a cancer cell, “the answer is a small handful”, he said. 

McGranahan added that the ways cancers evolve are complex, and this focuses on one part of the puzzle. 

“Other components such as how DNA is packaged into chromosomes are also key in how a tumour progresses and will need to be looked at to give us a clearer picture of how cancer evolves,” he said.

 

城中活動

2019-12-07 2:30 pm 乳癌治療 化療不用怕
2019-11-30 2:30 pm 腸癌Q&A茶聚

疑難排解

會員註冊


或許你會想看
美國癌症協會揭示癌症年輕化的趨勢︰ 原來都是「肥胖」的錯﹖
美國癌症協會揭示癌症年輕化的趨勢︰ 原來都是「肥胖」的錯﹖     [新聞發佈 2019.03.12] 肥胖與癌症的關係很密切﹖﹗根據美國癌症協會利用1995年至2014年的癌症數據資料庫的大數據,覆蓋美國25個[...]
乳癌4大致病危機 及早發現勝治療
乳癌4大致病危機 及早發現勝治療   目前,乳癌是香港女性最常見的癌症。在二零一三年,有超過3,500宗女性乳癌的新登記個案,當中逾六成患者年齡為50歲或以上。此外,乳癌在本港女性致命癌症中排第三位, 僅次於肺癌和大腸癌。[...]
勞工鎳暴露 肺功能差、易罹癌
勞工鎳暴露 肺功能差、易罹癌 電鍍業勞工鎳暴露風險高,肺功能明顯較差。 圖/123RF 勞工長期鎳暴露,可能影響肺部健康。林口長庚醫院研究發現,電鍍業勞工相較一般人鎳暴露風險高,導致體內抗氧化能力差,癌病變風險高,易有皮膚症狀,且肺[...]
吸煙男攝過量維B增肺癌風險
吸煙男攝過量維B增肺癌風險       ■梁慧思指市民從日常均衡飲食中,已可攝取足夠的維他命B。李潤芳攝       【本報訊】維他命補充劑究竟對健康有益定有害?美國一項最[...]
女士注意!6個子宮頸癌疑團大解謎
女士注意!6個子宮頸癌疑團大解謎       子宮頸癌與後生女無關?女士有固定性伴侶就不會中招?不少女士對婦科檢查都難以啟齒,甚至逃避檢查。婦產科專科醫生靳嘉仁表示,年輕女士最容易感染可致子宮頸癌的「人[...]
老火湯不是人人適合 乳癌基金會主席:或增乳癌復發風險
老火湯不是人人適合  乳癌基金會主席:或增乳癌復發風險             有云「民以食為天」,朋友說還有下半句,叫作「食以湯為先」。香港承襲廣東人的文化,也愛以足料的[...]
食無定時壓力大 胃癌找上門
食無定時壓力大 胃癌找上門 根據醫管局最新發布的數據,胃癌是本港第6大常見癌症,本港每年亦有逾千宗胃癌新症。有醫生表示,不少人誤以為胃癌一定會嘔血,但其實胃癌初期徵狀不明顯,都市人常見的胃痛,已可能是胃癌的警號。三餐不定時、精神壓力[...]
全球80萬新症 證糖尿病肥胖致癌
  權威醫學雜誌《刺針》昨天發表最新研究報告,顯示癌症與糖尿病和肥胖關係密切,研究團隊指在2012年全球診斷出的癌症新病例中,近6%由糖尿病和肥胖引起,相當於80萬宗新症,當中女性病人人數是男性的近兩倍。 研究團隊檢測的1[...]
研究:美國42%癌症來自可避免的壞習慣
食用紅肉或加工肉品是罹患癌症的原因之一。(Shutterstock)   研究人員今天表示,美國約十分之四的癌症病例歸因於生活型態的選擇(如抽菸、不良飲食習慣)和其它可避免的風險。 這份發表在「臨床醫師癌症期刊」(CA: [...]
WHO最新致癌物清單 鹹魚和菸酒並列一級致癌物
▲世界衛生組織最新致癌物清單,中式鹹魚和菸、酒、檳榔一同被列為一級致癌物。(圖/翻攝自Wikimedia Commons,2017.11.20)   日世界衛生組織(WHO)公布最新致癌物清單,出現「中式鹹魚」(Salte[...]
長服PPI治胃病 胃癌風險倍增
  是藥三分毒。質子泵抑制劑(PPI)是一種常見治療腸胃疾病的藥物,但香港大學醫學團隊13日公佈一項調查顯示,長期或頻密服用該藥物者,患上胃癌的機率以倍數增加。每周最少服用一次PPI者,較每周服用少於一次者,患上胃癌風險增[...]
研究發現72種變異基因 令女性患乳癌風險更高
h 最新研究結果顯示,另外有72種常見基因變異體令女性易患乳腺癌。(Pixabay.com)     最新發表在《自然與自然遺傳學》(Nature and Nature Genetics)雜誌上的一項研究結果顯示[...]