( 乳癌 ) Nature & Nat Commun：深入理解為何一些乳腺癌很難治療
根據一項得到英國癌症研究中心（Cancer Research UK）資助的新研究，科學家們揭示出至關重要的關於乳腺癌如何產生和與乳腺癌患者存活相關聯的基因變化的新遺傳信息。相關研究結果於2016年5月10日發表在Nature Communications期刊上，論文標題為“The somatic mutation profiles of 2,433 breast cancers refines their genomic and transcriptomic landscapes”。
The somatic mutation profiles of 2,433 breast cancers refines their genomic and transcriptomic landscapes
Bernard Pereira, Suet-Feung Chin, Oscar M. Rueda, Hans-Kristian Moen Vollan, Elena Provenzano, Helen A. Bardwell, Michelle Pugh, Linda Jones, Roslin Russell, Stephen-John Sammut, Dana W. Y. Tsui, Bin Liu, Sarah-Jane Dawson, Jean Abraham, Helen Northen, John F. Peden, Abhik Mukherjee, Gulisa Turashvili, Andrew R. Green, Steve McKinney, Arusha Oloumi, Sohrab Shah, Nitzan Rosenfeld, Leigh Murphy, David R. Bentley, Ian O. Ellis, Arnie Purushotham, Sarah E. Pinder, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Helena M. Earl, Paul D. Pharoah, Mark T. Ross, Samuel Aparicio & Carlos Caldas
The genomic landscape of breast cancer is complex, and inter- and intra-tumour heterogeneity are important challenges in treating the disease. In this study, we sequence 173 genes in 2,433 primary breast tumours that have copy number aberration (CNA), gene expression and long-term clinical follow-up data. We identify 40 mutation-driver (Mut-driver) genes, and determine associations between mutations, driver CNA profiles, clinical-pathological parameters and survival. We assess the clonal states of Mut-driver mutations, and estimate levels of intra-tumour heterogeneity using mutant-allele fractions. Associations between PIK3CA mutations and reduced survival are identified in three subgroups of ER-positive cancer (defined by amplification of 17q23, 11q13–14 or 8q24). High levels of intra-tumour heterogeneity are in general associated with a worse outcome, but highly aggressive tumours with 11q13–14 amplification have low levels of intra-tumour heterogeneity. These results emphasize the importance of genome-based stratification of breast cancer, and have important implications for designing therapeutic strategies.
The genomic and transcriptomic architecture of 2,000 breast tumours reveals novel subgroups
Christina Curtis, Sohrab P. Shah, Suet-Feung Chin, Gulisa Turashvili, Oscar M. Rueda, Mark J. Dunning, Doug Speed, Andy G. Lynch, Shamith Samarajiwa, Yinyin Yuan, Stefan Gräf, Gavin Ha, Gholamreza Haffari, Ali Bashashati, Roslin Russell, Steven McKinney, METABRIC Group, Anita Langerød, Andrew Green, Elena Provenzano, Gordon Wishart, Sarah Pinder, Peter Watson, Florian Markowetz, Leigh Murphy, Ian Ellis, Arnie Purushotham, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, James D. Brenton, Simon Tavaré, Carlos Caldas & Samuel Aparicio
The elucidation of breast cancer subgroups and their molecular drivers requires integrated views of the genome and transcriptome from representative numbers of patients. We present an integrated analysis of copy number and gene expression in a discovery and validation set of 997 and 995 primary breast tumours, respectively, with long-term clinical follow-up. Inherited variants (copy number variants and single nucleotide polymorphisms) and acquired somatic copy number aberrations (CNAs) were associated with expression in ~40% of genes, with the landscape dominated by cis- and trans-acting CNAs. By delineating expression outlier genes driven in cis by CNAs, we identified putative cancer genes, including deletions in PPP2R2A, MTAP and MAP2K4. Unsupervised analysis of paired DNA–RNA profiles revealed novel subgroups with distinct clinical outcomes, which reproduced in the validation cohort. These include a high-risk, oestrogen-receptor-positive 11q13/14 cis-acting subgroup and a favourable prognosis subgroup devoid of CNAs. Trans-acting aberration hotspots were found to modulate subgroup-specific gene networks, including a TCR deletion-mediated adaptive immune response in the ‘CNA-devoid’ subgroup and a basal-specific chromosome 5 deletion-associated mitotic network. Our results provide a novel molecular stratification of the breast cancer population, derived from the impact of somatic CNAs on the transcriptome.