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大紀元記者陳俊村編譯報導

    科學家相信,一顆10公里寬的小行星在超過6,500萬年前撞擊地球,導致恐龍等多種物種大規模滅絕。現有研究人員發現,當年的小行星所攜帶的稀有金屬銥,可用來殺死癌症細胞,而不傷害健康的細胞。   在一項由英國華威大學(University of Warwick)與中國中山大學所共同進行的研究中,研究人員發現,雷射光可以將銥轉換成有效的治癌藥物。銥是所有元素中密度第二高的元素,地球上的天然銥非常稀少,主要是小行星或隕石從外太空帶來的。 研究人員先製作銥的化合物與有機物質,接著將其注入在實驗室中培育的肺癌腫瘤中。當看得見的紅色雷射光穿透皮膚照到腫瘤部位時,此化合物會被活化,並將腫瘤內的氧分子轉換成有毒的氧原子(單氧),進而殺死癌症細胞。   銥化合物攻擊癌症細胞的示意圖。(University of Warwick) 為了確認此化合物是否可以有效殺死癌症細胞,研究人員使用超高解析度的光譜測定法來標示,癌症細胞中的哪些蛋白質是攻擊目標。結果發現,此化合物攻擊的是熱休克蛋白和控制葡萄糖代謝的蛋白質。對於癌症細胞存活而言,這些蛋白質都是重要的分子。 更好的是,當研究人員在非癌症細胞上測試這種銥化合物時,並沒有效果顯現,這表示此種藥物似乎只鎖定癌症細胞,而不會攻擊健康細胞。 研究人員說,對於了解這些由銥製成的化合物如何使用不同的機制避開抗藥性的問題來攻擊癌症細胞,這項研究邁進了一大步。 目前,鉑這種貴重金屬已經使用在超過一半的癌症化學療法上,而像銥之類的其它金屬,也有用來對抗癌症的可能性。正當癌症對某些療法產生抵抗力之際,能找到這樣的新療法是非常重要的。 責任編輯:林琮文 http://www.epochtimes.com/   Asteroid that killed dinosaurs could help cure cancer   Iridium can be used to kill cancer cells by filling them with a deadly version of oxygen which doesn't harm healthy tissue. University of Warwick UK Press Release of University of Warwick UK University of Warwick UK       Scientists have announced that cancer cells can be targeted and killed using iridium, a metallic chemical element delivered to Earth in the asteroid or comet that killed off the dinosaurs, reports China’s Science and Technology Daily. The research was conducted by scientists from the UK's University of Warwick and Sun Yat-Sen University in China. Their findings were recently published in the Angewandte Chemie journal.       Iridium can be used to kill cancer cells by filling them with a deadly version of oxygen which doesn't harm healthy tissue. University of Warwick Press Release of University of Warwick UK University of Warwick UK According to a press release by the University of Warwick, the team developed a compound of iridium and organic material that, when injected into cancer cells, turns the oxygen inside them into a poison known as 'singlet oxygen'. This is then able to kill the disease without harming any healthy tissue. Although the research is in its very early stages and the compound has only been used on a model that mimics cancer, Cookson Chiu, co-author of the findings, commented that “this project is a leap forward in understanding how these new iridium-based anti-cancer compounds are attacking cancer cells and introducing different mechanisms of action to get around the resistance issue and tackle cancer from a different angle.” Iridium, which is the second densest metal, has a melting point of 2,447 degrees Celsius. It was discovered by scientists in the 1980s that an unusual abundance of iridium in certain layers of the Earth's crust indicates that its presence coincides with the giant asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs. This is not the main source of Earth's supplies of Iridium however, with ore containing the element being mined in a number of countries around the world. Weida Li has been a staff editor at GBTIMES since 2017.      https://gbtimes.com/asteroid-that-killed-dinosaurs-could-help-cure-cancer
星島日報

  盧煜明花逾廿年時間研究血液內基因,成功研發出多種病症診斷方法。 更多 【星島日報報道】醫生醫病多做臨牀診斷是基本職責,在中文大學醫學院副院長(研究)盧煜明的抱負不止於此,花逾二十年時間研究血液內基因,成功研發出多種病症診斷方法,包括已被多國廣泛使用的產前無創唐氏綜合症基因檢測技術,可望明年在公立醫院內讓大眾使用。盧煜明相信新技術可影響生活,更可改變未來,「近年已是香港最好的土壤環境下,可孕育出未來的科技人才,年輕人應珍惜。」 「天馬行空的都可以去試!」中文大學醫學院副院長(研究)盧煜明多年前,憑着研發孕婦血漿含高濃度胎兒基因,成功發明產前無創唐氏綜合症的診斷技術,之後一直都沉醉在各種血液基因測試中,發明多類篩查病症、鼻咽癌等技術,一切源自他喜愛做研究調查、愛天馬行空而起,「做研究做調查,是我的嗜好,我不會視為工作。」 盧煜明接受訪問時直指,無創的基因診斷技術,可知悉腹中胎兒是否屬正常,亦可掌握到市民是否有癌症,「新技術就是可影響生活,改變未來。」他指,中國每年有約一千八百萬人懷孕,今年已有四百萬人曾使用無創基因技術診斷胎兒,他坦言,從無估計到技術已可如此廣泛應用。 起初成功研發後,不少人也向他「潑冷水」,他指,曾有多人認為這種科技也只是鐘擺效應,只能逐步慢慢向前,但結果火速發展,連美國保險公司都支持這技術及納入保險範圍,荷蘭、比利時政府更願資助孕婦進行檢測。 他指,香港現只在私家診所等可採用這檢測技術,孕婦須自費進行,他期望這種已在多國普遍採用技術,在香港可讓普羅大眾免費使用,亦須得當局全力支持。據悉,盧煜明的無創檢測技術,已獲醫管局青睞,現冀明年可在一間全新落成的醫院內採用,讓孕婦可以廉價或免費使用。 基因變化是層出不窮,盧煜明指,基因診斷技術已成形,可再進一步發展,將技術應用到診斷更多單基因疾病,他期望可診斷出嬰孩是否有自閉症、妊娠毒血症、癌症等,望透過血液基因是否有突變及篩查,在前期已可診斷病症,有助病人及早獲合適治療,具前瞻性,而不是在後期才被發現。 他又說自己經常忽發奇想,嘗試拆解不同的基因進入另一基因後,會產生那類變化。他更會研究食物基因,會否從人的尿液內找得到,他笑言,如成功即可驗尿,就可得悉體內有那些動物基因,吃過那些動物。 盧煜明的基因技術早已被創科界定為香港首批跑出的「獨角獸」,但他一臉靦腆謙謙地笑,他指獨角獸顧名思義是成功的科技,香港須更多成功科技的例子,但往往不少叻學生寧選當醫生、金融投資等行業,選讀科技只佔少數,近年已是香港最好的土壤環境下,可孕育出未來的科技人才,他籲年輕人珍惜眼前。 他期望香港創科發展不再落後於人,新加坡已早過香港十年起步,深圳現更超前,香港科技園內雖有多間初創、企業進駐,但需有數個大型成功例子跑出,為香港贏得一些口碑榮譽,令更多人認識,才可在未來五至十年香港創科可企穩發展。 他指,政府不能單靠引進外國創科龍頭大企來港,便算發展科技,「不可單靠外地公司,亦要扶植本地初創發圍。」 https://hk.news.yahoo.com/
譯者:中央社李佩珊

  (中央社華盛頓6日綜合外電報導)癌症患者動手術時最擔心的莫過於外科醫師未將腫瘤清除乾淨,專家現在已經研發出一種新型筆狀工具,能將這樣的憂慮一掃而空。 法新社報導,美國德州大學奧斯汀分校(University of Texas at Austin)科學家和工程師研發的這項工具稱為「質譜筆」(MasSpec Pen,暫譯),能讓移除腫瘤的外科醫師在幾秒內就能偵測出組織裡的癌細胞,讓醫師立刻知道自己是否已經發現且移除所有癌細胞。 目前要花上好幾天時間才能確定外科醫師是否切除所有癌細胞;如果有所遺漏,可能會導致患者癌症復發,或至少必須再動一次手術來將病變細胞清乾淨。 美聯社引述研究主筆、德州大學奧斯汀分校化學副教授厄伯林(Livia Eberlin)表示,每個人最大夢魘,莫過於動刀後仍有癌細胞殘留的可能性,「透過提供即時分子資料,我們真的可以提高精準度」。 「科學轉譯醫學」(Science Translational Medicine)今天刊登的研究指出,這種筆在手術中只需10秒左右的時間就能辨識出癌組織。 手術期間用質譜筆接觸組織,輕輕引出小分子,再透過筆尖探針內建的小型質譜儀來進行分析。它能透過一種稱為代謝物(metabolites)的獨特分子來辨識癌細胞。 研究說:「每種癌症都會產生一組獨特的代謝物和其他作用有如指紋的生物標記。」 質譜筆能在幾秒內辨識出殘餘的癌細胞,連接質譜筆的監視器會顯示細胞為「正常」或是「癌」。這讓外科醫師得以繼續清除癌細胞,直到幾乎確定已經清除所有癌細胞為止;對於哪個組織要留在患者體內,醫師也能做出更好的判斷。   根據這項研究,自253名人類癌症患者身上移除的組織檢測顯示,這種新型工具的「準確率超過96%」。 http://www.cna.com.tw/news/ahel/201709070184-1.aspx     The MasSpec Pen is a handheld probe that can non-destructively analyze human tissue samples to identify cancer. Vivian Abagiu/Univ. of Texas at Austin CANCER This Pen Can Diagnose Cancer in 10 Seconds Alexandra Sifferlin Sep 06, 2017 TIME Health For more, visit TIME Health. When it comes to treating cancer, surgeons want to get rid of as much cancerous tissue as possible during tumor removal. Now a new technology—the size of a pen—is attempting to make that easier by distinguishing between tumors and healthy tissue in just 10 seconds. The MasSpec Pen is a real-time diagnostic tool created by researchers at the University of Texas at Austin. In a new study published Wednesday in the journal Science Translational Medicine, the researchers report that their handheld device (which is not yet FDA-approved) uses tiny droplets of water to analyze human tissue samples for cancer with 96% accuracy.   “It’s a gentle, simple chemical process,” says study author Livia Schiavinato Eberlin , an assistant professor of chemistry at UT Austin. “It’s highly specific and highly sensitive. The fact that it’s non-destructive brings a new approach to cancer diagnosis.” MORE: Researchers Find a Way to Light Up Cancer Cells Getting rid of all cancerous tissue while also preventing any harm to healthy tissue is a delicate process. When operating on a woman with breast cancer, for example, a doctor needs to remove the tumor and other affected tissues while maintaining the rest of the breast. Currently there are other tools available to surgeons for tissue diagnosis, but many use gases or solvents that can be harmful for the human body. In 2016, researchers in Massachusetts reportedthat they developed a probe that can find and light up cancer cells, making them easier for surgeons to see. But other methods currently available to surgeons today are slower than the MasSpec Pen, the study authors say, in some cases by 30 minutes or more. Human cells produce a variety of small molecules, and cancer creates a unique set of them that can be used for pattern identification. The MasSpec Pen produces a small drop of water that extracts molecules from a person’s cells during surgery. Through machine learning, the MasSpec Pen is able to determine what molecular fingerprint is normal and what is cancer, Eberlin says. In the study, the researchers tested 253 human tissue samples from lung, ovary, thyroid and breast cancer tumors and compared them to samples of healthy tissues. The device was 96% accurate at identifying cancerous tissues. The researchers also tested the MasSpec Pen in live mice with tumors and found that the device was able to identify the presence of cancer without harming healthy surrounding tissues. The device can also identify different subtypes of lung and thyroid cancer, and the team hopes to make it more specified for other types of cancer, too.   The researchers say they need to continue validating their work and that they plan to start clinical testing in humans in 2018. Until then, it’s unclear how exactly the device will work when integrated into surgery. While the pen-sized device that the surgeon would use is small, the device is connected to a large mass spectrometer, which helps the process of analyzing individual molecules . That large machine would need to be wheeled in and out of a surgery room for each procedure. The pen is disposable, so surgeons would replace it with each surgery. “This is a good example of a tool that empowers our transition to precision medicine where the treatment can be done with much higher levels of confidence,” says study author Thomas Milner, professor of biomedical engineering in UT Austin's Cockrell School of Engineering . “Treatment can be planned and given where the outcomes are known. This is one tool along that path.” http://time.com/4928010/diagnose-cancer-pen/
【Now新聞台】

胰臟癌是死亡率最高的癌症之一,少於一成病人能活多過5年,而且病徵不明顯。美國華盛頓大學的研究人員研發了一個手機應用程式,透過分析自拍照中眼白的膽紅素水平,從而得知患胰臟癌的機率。 英國《每日郵報》報道,眼白變黃是胰臟癌的其中一個病徵,那是因為腫瘤影響體內膽紅素上升,但如果看到眼睛變黃,通常已經是癌症後期。 這個名叫BiliScreen的應用程式,能夠分析自拍者眼睛的照片,探測眼白的膽紅素水平。程式在首次的臨床測試中成功率達八成七,同時較傳統的驗血方法更方便、便宜。 程式仍需作進一步測試,希望能於九月中推出。研究人員希望能幫助不幸患上胰臟癌的人及早發現,把握時間接受治療,增加生存機會。   New app could use smartphone selfies to screen for pancreatic cancer Jennifer Langston UW News   BiliScreen is a new smartphone app that is designed to screen for pancreatic cancer by having users snap a selfie. It’s shown here with a 3-D printed box that helps control lighting conditions to detect signs of jaundice in a person’s eye.Dennis Wise/University of Washington Pancreatic cancer has one of the worst prognoses — with a five-year survival rate of 9 percent — in part because there are no telltale symptoms or non-invasive screening tools to catch a tumor before it spreads. Now, University of Washington researchers are developing an app that could allow people to easily screen for pancreatic cancer and other diseases — by snapping a smartphone selfie. BiliScreen uses a smartphone camera, computer vision algorithms and machine learning tools to detect increased bilirubin levels in a person’s sclera, or the white part of the eye. The app is described in a paper to be presented Sept. 13 at Ubicomp 2017, the Association for Computing Machinery’s International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing. One of the earliest symptoms of pancreatic cancer, as well as other diseases, is jaundice, a yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes caused by a buildup of bilirubin in the blood. The ability to detect signs of jaundice when bilirubin levels are minimally elevated — but before they’re visible to the naked eye — could enable an entirely new screening program for at-risk individuals. In an initial clinical study of 70 people, the BiliScreen app — used in conjunction with a 3-D printed box that controls the eye’s exposure to light — correctly identified cases of concern 89.7 percent of the time, compared to the blood test currently used. “The problem with pancreatic cancer is that by the time you’re symptomatic, it’s frequently too late,” said lead author Alex Mariakakis, a doctoral student at the Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science & Engineering. “The hope is that if people can do this simple test once a month — in the privacy of their own homes — some might catch the disease early enough to undergo treatment that could save their lives.” BiliScreen builds on earlier work from the UW’s Ubiquitous Computing Lab, which previously developed BiliCam, a smartphone app that screens for newborn jaundice by taking a picture of a baby’s skin. A recent study in the journal Pediatrics showed BiliCam provided accurate estimates of bilirubin levels in 530 infants. In collaboration with UW Medicine doctors, the UbiComp lab specializes in using cameras, microphones and other components of common consumer devices — such as smartphones and tablets — to screen for disease.   BiliScreen provides estimates of bilirubin levels in a person’s blood. Elevated levels can be an early warning sign for pancreatic cancer, hepatitis and other diseases.Dennis Wise/University of Washington The blood test that doctors currently use to measure bilirubin levels — which is typically not administered to adults unless there is reason for concern — requires access to a health care professional and is inconvenient for frequent screening. BiliScreen is designed to be an easy-to-use, non-invasive tool that could help determine whether someone ought to consult a doctor for further testing. Beyond diagnosis, BiliScreen could also potentially ease the burden on patients with pancreatic cancer who require frequent bilirubin monitoring. In adults, the whites of the eyes are more sensitive than skin to changes in bilirubin levels, which can be an early warning sign for pancreatic cancer, hepatitis or the generally harmless Gilbert’s syndrome. Unlike skin color, changes in the sclera are more consistent across all races and ethnicities. Yet by the time people notice the yellowish discoloration in the sclera, bilirubin levels are already well past cause for concern. The UW team wondered if computer vision and machine learning tools could detect those color changes in the eye before humans can see them. “The eyes are a really interesting gateway into the body — tears can tell you how much glucose you have, sclera can tell you how much bilirubin is in your blood,” said senior author Shwetak Patel, the Washington Research Foundation Entrepreneurship Endowed Professor in Computer Science & Engineering and Electrical Engineering.  “Our question was: Could we capture some of these changes that might lead to earlier detection with a selfie?” BiliScreen uses a smartphone’s built-in camera and flash to collect pictures of a person’s eye as they snap a selfie. The team developed a computer vision system to automatically and effectively isolate the white parts of the eye, which is a valuable tool for medical diagnostics. The app then calculates the color information from the sclera — based on the wavelengths of light that are being reflected and absorbed — and correlates it with bilirubin levels using machine learning algorithms.   The UW team tested two different accessories for BiliScreen: a 3-D printed box to control lighting conditions and glasses that help the app calibrate colors. The goal is to remove the need for additional accessories, potentially by mining data from facial pictures.Dennis Wise/University of Washington To account for different lighting conditions, the team tested BiliScreen with two different accessories: paper glasses printed with colored squares to help calibrate color and a 3-D printed box that blocks out ambient lighting. Using the app with the box accessory — reminiscent of a Google Cardboard headset — led to slightly better results. Next steps for the research team include testing the app on a wider range of people at risk for jaundice and underlying conditions, as well as continuing to make usability improvements — including removing the need for accessories like the box and glasses. “This relatively small initial study shows the technology has promise,” said co-author Dr. Jim Taylor, a professor in the UW Medicine Department of Pediatrics whose father died of pancreatic cancer at age 70. “Pancreatic cancer is a terrible disease with no effective screening right now,” Taylor said. “Our goal is to have more people who are unfortunate enough to get pancreatic cancer to be fortunate enough to catch it in time to have surgery that gives them a better chance of survival.” Co-authors include Allen School undergraduate student Megan A. Banks, research study coordinator Lauren Phillipi and assistant professor of medicine Lei Yu. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation, the Coulter Foundation and endowment funds from the Washington Research Foundation. For more information, contact the research team at uwbiliscreen@gmail.com or Mariakakis at atm15@cs.washington.edu.

據外媒報道,科學家已經研發出被光激活的微小“納米機器”,可以在數分鐘內鑽入癌細胞並殺死它們。去年三位科學家因研發出“納米機器”而被授予諾貝爾化學獎。根據最新發表在《自然》雜志上的一項研究,英國達勒姆大學、美國萊斯大學以及北卡羅萊納州立大學的科學家們開發出了一些納米機器。當被光激活後,納米機器可以通過細胞壁進行鑽入癌細胞內部,並迅速殺死它們。 這些納米機器非常小,一個納米機器約相當於人類頭髮直徑的五萬分之一。每個納米機器對位於特定類型細胞上的蛋白質敏感,這有助於它們找到目標。一旦添加光線,它們每秒旋轉高達300萬次,這種旋轉提供了鑽入癌細胞所需的能量。沒有光,納米機器仍然可以找到分子,但只停留在表面上。 當科學家把這些納米機器放在充滿人類腎細胞的容器中時,納米機器在細胞中形成孔,並在數分鐘內殺死它們。當納米機器在癌前列腺細胞上釋放時,發生同樣的事情。研究人員希望在未來這些納米機器可以用來非常精確地遞送藥物,或者實際上殺死癌細胞,從而導致新形式的治療。   Molecular nanosubmarines can target and kill specific cancer cells  Rich Haridy  September 3, 2017 These tiny molecules can hunt down and kill specific cancer cells (Credit: Rice University) VIEW GALLERY - 4 IMAGES In 2015, scientists from Rice University revealed they had created light-driven nanosubmarines. These tiny molecular machines were activated by ultraviolet light and based on earlier work from Nobel laureate Bernard Feringa, whose ground-breaking research won the prize for chemistry in 2016. These single-molecule machines have now been shown to be able to target, and drill into, specific cancer cells, paving the way for a variety of highly targeted future nanomedicine treatments. These molecular machines consist of 244 atoms with a tail-like propeller that creates propulsion when exposed to UV light. After proving the concept worked back in 2015, the team moved on to exploring whether the molecular motor could penetrate an individual cell. "We thought it might be possible to attach these nanomachines to the cell membrane and then turn them on to see what happened," explains chemist James Tour. First the team needed to attach the molecular motor to a component that allowed it to target a specific cell. In these early experiments a peptide was utilized that drove the molecule to attach itself to the membrane of human prostate cancer cells. The molecules were shown to effectively locate and attach to the targeted cells, but not drill into them until specifically triggered by UV light. Once triggered, the motors spun up to two to three million rotations per second to break through the cell membrane and kill the cell within one to three minutes. The obvious challenge that needs to be overcome is to develop an activation trigger other than ultraviolet light, which currently limits the molecular motors to being controllable when concentrated at the surface of tissue. Other triggers are currently being investigated, with near infra-red (IR) light looking like the best option to control these motors when delivered deep into a body. "In this process, the motor will absorb two photons simultaneously and get enough energy to start the rotor," says Gufeng Wang, a chemist on the Rice University team. "Since near IR light has deep penetration depth, we are no longer limited to the surface of the tissue." There is much work that still needs to be done before these molecular motors become a real, clinical treatment, but there are a variety of exciting outcomes this technology promises. As well as targeting and destroying cancer cells, the molecular motors could be utilized to deliver drugs directly into diseased cells. As well as working on additional activation mechanisms, the team is embarking on a series of small animal tests to examine the effectiveness of the molecules on living organisms. "The researchers are already proceeding with experiments in microorganisms and small fish to explore the efficacy in-vivo," says Tour. "The hope is to move this swiftly to rodents to test the efficacy of nanomachines for a wide range of medicinal therapies." The research was published in the journal Nature and the video below provides a closer look at the team's breakthrough. Source: Rice University http://newatlas.com/molecular-motor-kills-cancer-cell/51173/  
中央社

台北醫學大學與IBM聯合舉辦2017國際醫學資訊聯合研 討會,討論人工智慧在醫療照護領域應用現況與趨勢, 以及如何實現精準醫療的方法及途徑。圖為與會來賓合 影。 (台北醫學大學提供) 中央社記者陳偉婷傳真   (中央社記者陳偉婷台北18日電)人工智慧可以預測癌症,北醫醫學科技學院院長李友專今天說,正在研究預測肝癌模組,利用病人過去看診紀錄,可以預測1年內會不會得到肝癌,準確率達8成。 台北醫學大學與IBM聯合舉辦2017國際醫學資訊聯合研討會,主題為「創新資料科學與人工智慧應用於醫療照護」,邀請美國、希臘、卡達、西班牙、台灣中研院等國內外學者專家發表相關研究,討論人工智慧在醫療照護領域應用的現況與趨勢,以及如何實現精準醫療的方法及途徑。 李友專傍晚受訪時表示,研討會發表議題多元且豐富,有學者研究如何利用智慧型手機建立產婦母乳哺餵量表評估系統,記下產婦在住院期間的母乳哺餵狀況,協助院方評估是否要轉介並追蹤後續狀況,減少人為疏失及資料重複記錄等情形。 北醫醫資所也運用資料探勘技術建立代謝症候群預測模型,從參加成人預防保健服務的65歲以上長者資料,預測是否為高危險代謝症候群患者,有助預防疾病發生。 李友專表示,北醫今年6月已率先導入IBM Watson for Oncology(人工智能癌症治療輔助系統),可輔助體系內附設醫院、萬芳醫院、雙和醫院以及台北癌症中心的腫瘤科醫師進行診斷治療。 李友專說,如治療特別困難的癌症病人,每次都服3顆藥,但其中一種藥物產生抗藥性,人工智慧可以蒐集、提供最新的文獻資料給醫師,讓醫師清楚藥物之間的互動,來做最好的藥物選擇。 除了癌症治療,李友專表示,以人工智慧做醫療預測是趨勢,現在北醫也在研究新模組,利用患者過去3到4年的就醫資訊,預測病人什麼時候會得肝癌?會不會在1年內得到肝癌?準確率可以達8成。 李友專說,這樣的預測模式聽起來很神奇,但利用患者的資料,如肝長期慢性發炎,得到肝硬化、肝癌的機會愈大;或有些藥物長期食用對肝會有比較大影響,也會增加肝癌風險,過去就診紀錄都是模組可以預測的基礎。 李友專表示,過去提醒民眾未來可能會有什麼疾病的風險,民眾常聽了也不當一回事;但如果告訴他,「一年後得到肝癌的機會很高」,民眾一定會努力改變生活習慣,預防性醫療有助減少疾病發生。 http://www.cna.com.tw/news/ahel/201708180325-1.aspx
中央廣播電臺

  醫學發展日新月益,全球每年發表近5萬篇腫瘤研究文獻,為了讓癌症病患能獲得更全面妥善的醫療照護,臺北醫學大學今天(14日)宣布引進「人工智能癌症治療輔助系統」,這套系統匯集全球癌症治療文獻資料及國際頂尖癌症團隊的治療經驗,能協助醫師給予病患更精準的治療。 臺北醫學大學14日宣布引進由美國史隆凱特林紀念癌症中心 (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center,MSK)訓練出來的「人工智能癌症治療輔助系統」(IBM Watson for Oncology)。萬芳醫院醫療資訊執行長、放射腫瘤科主治醫師陳俊佑表示,癌症治療除了依循治療指引外,更重要的是憑藉醫師的經驗判斷,採取最適合患者的治療方式及用藥,人工智能輔助系統匯集了300多種醫學期刊、200多本教科書、近1500萬頁文件的資料,以及國際頂尖癌症團隊的治療經驗,能提供醫師最佳的治療建議,讓癌症病人獲得最好的醫療照護。陳俊佑:『我們在判斷一個治療的時候,有可能有非常多面向要考慮,它每一個都不會漏掉,這是跟人類不一樣,人類可能會有疏漏,但是它不會有疏漏。它做出來的選擇呢,全部都是有所本的,他是去根據現在一些文獻,再加上美國知名癌症中心史隆凱特林的經驗,才給出來的建議。』 陳俊佑指出,包括北醫體系下的臺北癌症中心、北醫附醫、萬芳醫院及雙和醫院,都已採取這套人工智能治療輔助系統,運用範圍包含乳癌、攝護腺癌、大腸癌、直腸癌、肺癌、子宮頸癌、卵巢癌、前列腺癌等8項癌症。醫師問診後,會將病歷報告、理學和影像學檢查數據以及看診記錄等載入電子病歷,再從雲端連結到系統,系統會立即判讀及分析,並提出治療建議,最後再由醫師依個人專業及經驗做出決定。 臺北醫學大學校長閻雲表示,這套系統每3個月就會更新文獻及臨床經驗,癌症患者不用大老遠跑到美國的知名醫院,也可得到即時且完整的治療建議,節省時間及金錢。 http://times.hinet.net/news/20295235   IBM Watson Health https://www.ibm.com/watson/health/oncology-and-genomics/oncology/
BBC

英國首席醫療官員呼籲一場癌症治療的新革命,即利用基因測試來幫助治療癌症。 英國政府醫療總監戴維斯教授說,應該為癌症患者提供例常的DNA測試,以幫助選擇最佳的個體治療方案。 戴維斯教授還希望英國的公共醫療服務系統(NHS)能夠在未來的5年實現她所說的"基因組的夢想"。 目前英國已經有31000名NHS的病人,其中包括一些癌症病人的基因圖譜被全部排列出來。 戴維斯教授還希望未來能夠使全部基因篩選(whole genome screening)像驗血和活檢那樣成為例常檢查。 在英國如果把一個人全部的基因圖表序列排列出來的價格大約為700英鎊。 中國 這一醫學突破不但為英國的癌症患者帶來福音,而且對全世界的癌症病人都將會產生影響。 據2016年的統計數字,中國每天都會有1.2萬人確診患癌,及7500名病人因患癌死亡。 中國去年約有430萬人確診癌症,另外280萬人因癌症去世。 研究人員表示,慢性感染、吸煙及污染都導致中國癌症個案急速上升的原因。 此外,一些權威性的醫學雜誌,例如《柳葉刀》曾警告中國將面臨癌症危機。 由於環境污染更是加重了中國癌症井噴的可能性。 個體化針對治療     人類共有大約2萬個基因,這些DNA密碼或是指令控制著我們的身體如何運轉。 如果密碼出現小小的失誤就可能會導致癌症或是其他的疾病。 當然,有時人們可能會從父母的一方繼承一些錯誤的基因,但大多數情況下,一些健康的細胞可能會發生錯誤而導致突變。 如果有了全部的基因圖譜,就可以比較正常的DNA和腫瘤的DNA,很容易找出哪裏出了問題。 戴維斯教授說,三分之二的情況下醫生可以利用這一信息來改善診斷以及隨後的治療。 同時,醫生也可以對症下藥,選擇對患者最有效的藥物和治療方案。 此外,有了全部的基因圖表序列還可以知道哪些病人可能受益不大,從而避免不必要的治療和副作用等。 迅速診斷 戴維斯教授希望DNA測試不但成為癌症患者例常檢查的項目,同時也可以用於一些其他的醫藥領域,包括一些罕見的疾病和感染等。 其實,醫生已經開始使用基因測試來檢測和治療一些傳染病,例如肺結核的一些變異株群等。 戴維斯教授說,病人的基因圖譜表信息將會被安全和加密的保存,以保護人們的隱私不受侵犯。 但活動組織的人說,任何數據的使用都要徵得病人的同意,並本著安全、透明的原則。 基因夢想 10多年前,科學家實現了DNA的突破,成功地把人類所有的基因圖譜排列出來。 這讓醫學人員更好地了解哪些基因控制著我們身體的某些過程以及錯誤是如何發生的。 醫生們開始"解讀"病人的DNA來確定問題出在哪裏以及如何更好的治療等。 同時,基因醫學也可以讓醫生針對個體病人獨一無二的基因密碼來對症下藥、量體裁衣。 基因圖譜醫學的發展也徹底改變了人們就醫治病的方法。 基因可以預測一名患乳腺癌的女子對某種藥的反應是否良好,以及放療是否可以讓她的腫瘤縮小等。 http://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/science-40492861   「基因保健」助制定個人化保健計劃 AM730-25 Jun 2017 不少疾病除了由後天的個人生活習慣所致,也同時受到先天因素影響,而隨著醫學界對基因圖譜的認識不斷增加,更深入了解基因與疾病的關係,「基因保健」的概念便 ...       精準醫療年代英國籲所有癌病患者做基因檢查減復發機會 香港01-13 hours ago 癌症有很多誘發原因,其中一個是遺傳所致,這亦與為何某些人癌症難以醫治或多次復發有很大關係。英國首席醫官戴維斯(Dame Sally Davies)在 ...

根據今天公布的兩項研究報告,晚期攝護腺癌病人除接受正規治療外,如增加使用一種新的抗荷爾蒙藥物,結果顯示可以減少死亡風險將近40%。 法新社報導,這種藥物是阿比特龍(abiraterone),楊森藥廠(Janssen Pharmaceuticals)有售,商品名為澤珂錠(Zytiga)。 其中一項研究發現,阿比特龍若與通常開給轉移性攝護腺癌患者服用的藥物潑尼松(prednisone)一起使用,死亡的風險減少了38%。 這項在美國臨床腫瘤學會(ASCO)年會上發布的報告又說,這種藥物也使得癌症惡化前的時間增加一倍有餘,由原本的14.8個月增至33個月。 這項臨床試驗包括34個國家的1200位病人,由2013年2月進行至2014年12月。 第二項臨床試驗涵蓋近2000位患者,結果發現在治療高風險的晚期攝護腺癌病人時,若除了標準的初步治療方法外再加上阿比特龍,也可以使相對死亡風險降低37%。 根據美國國家醫學圖書館(National Library of Medicine),比例高達92%的攝護腺癌病例能夠早期發現,也就是在腫瘤擴散到身體其他部分之前。不過,大約5%左右的患者被診斷出患病時,癌細胞已經擴散,治療前景欠佳。 https://udn.com/news/story/6812/2502635 J&J's Zytiga Boosts Survival in New, Severe Prostate Cancers Bloomberg - ‎Jun 3, 2017‎ Johnson & Johnson's Zytiga helps men newly diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer live longer, according to new findings that could expand use of the medication. Men who received hormone therapy, the recommended first-time treatment, plus Zytiga ...   Early use of J&J's Zytiga extends prostate cancer survival Reuters - ‎Jun 3, 2017‎ CHICAGO Adding Johnson & Johnson's Zytiga to standard hormone therapy reduced by nearly 40 percent the chance of death for men newly diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer that had spread to other parts of the body, according to new trial results.   'Historic' and 'practice-changing' Zytiga delivers in prostate cancer at ASCO BioWorld Online - ‎Jun 3, 2017‎ CHICAGO – Eagerly awaited data with abiraterone (Zytiga, Johnson & Johnson) in prostate cancer (PC) are “likely to change clinical practice pretty much overnight,” American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) chief medical officer Richard Schilsky told ...   J&J's Zytiga slashes death risk by 38% in earlier-stage prostate cancer patients FiercePharma - ‎Jun 3, 2017‎ CHICAGO—Johnson & Johnson may soon be able to move prostate cancer med Zytiga into an earlier disease stage, thanks to game-changing new data that rolled out Saturday at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting. Zytiga, in ...   Data show Zytiga can boost efficacy of first-line therapy The Pharma Letter (registration) - ‎18 hours ago‎ Top-line data from Janssen's eagerly-awaited clinical trial into Zytiga (abiraterone acetate) in combination with the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer have been released. The data show that the relative risk of death was lowered by 37%.   Janssen announces data from pivotal phase 3 LATITUDE trial of ZYTIGA Seeking Alpha - ‎Jun 3, 2017‎ Janssen announces data from the pivotal phase 3 LATITUDE clinical trial, which showed ZYTIGA (abiraterone acetate) plus prednisone, in combination with androgen deprivation therapy ("ADT"), demonstrated a significant improvement in overall survival and ...   Hope for 20000 prostate cancer patients after 'world's biggest treatment' trial The Independent - ‎Jun 3, 2017‎ Usually, abiraterone (sold commercially as Zytiga) is given to men who have stopped responding to ADT but the study found that giving it much earlier – and in combination with ADT – had much stronger benefits. Adding abiraterone to ADT reduced the risk ...   J&J's stellar prostate cancer data signals the likelihood of a broader market approval, as Pfizer rival struggles Endpoints News - ‎Jun 3, 2017‎ CHICAGO — J&J will be looking to expand its blockbuster market for Zytiga (abiraterone) after posting stellar data at ASCO showing that the drug combined with standard hormone therapy registered a major improvement in progression-free survival among ...   Study shows early Zytiga use improves prostate cancer survival Normangee Star - ‎17 hours ago‎ Combined therapy with abiraterone acetate/prednisone plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) significantly improved overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival (PFS) among men with metastatic hormone-naive prostate cancer compared ...   Study shows early Zytiga use improves prostate cancer survival ... pppFocus - ‎Jun 3, 2017‎ J&J will be looking to expand its blockbuster market for Zytiga (abiraterone) after posting stellar data at ASCO showing that the drug combined with standard ...   Abiraterone Combo: A New Care Standard in Prostate Cancer ... MedPage Today - ‎Jun 3, 2017‎ CHICAGO -- Dramatic results in two clinical trials are persuading experts here that an androgen-suppressing drug should be used earlier in men with prostate ...   Prostate cancer treatment 'could help more patients' BBC News - ‎Jun 3, 2017‎ Abiraterone, also known as Zytiga, is a hormone therapy. Unlike chemotherapy which kills the cancerous cells, it stops more testosterone from reaching the prostate gland to stifle the tumour's growth. The trial involved almost 2,000 patients. Half the ...   Quickly reporting cancer complications may boost survival AppsforPCdaily - ‎8 hours ago‎ Men who received hormone therapy, the recommended first-time treatment, plus Zytiga were about one-third less likely to die during two studies than those who got standard treatment alone, according to research presented Saturday at the American Society ...
林宜靜/中時電子報

研究證實,精子能改造成為攜帶藥物的載具可應用於治療婦科癌症。(達志影像/shutterstock提供) 愛愛後,男性會產生精子,健康的精子是孕育下一代的基礎,經由和女性卵子受孕,就是一個新生命!然如不是要受孕的精子,還有什麼用途呢?科學研究證實,精子能改造成為攜帶藥物的載具可應用於治療婦科癌症。 醫療科學進步,然癌症至今仍是無解!據調查,台灣每100名女性中,有4人會得到癌症,其中近一半女性是罹患子宮頸癌、卵巢癌、子宮內膜癌等。除開刀動手術外,就是以抗癌藥物治療,然以目前治療方法而言,能否準確瞄準癌細胞,而不傷害正常細胞,不讓癌症患者造成負擔也成目前醫學界的抗癌重點。 神奇!「精子」竟能成為的藥物運輸載體,還能有效應用於婦科癌症治療!《MIT Technology Review》報導,近期德國科學家發現了精子的新用途!科學家以公牛的精子作為實驗,讓精子大量吸收活性藥物,再在精子頭部安裝極小的微型架構,這個透過雷射列印出來的微型架構,可讓「精子」成為攜帶大量癌症治療藥物的微型電動機。 透過磁體牽引,當精子靠近腫瘤細胞時,真正接觸到腫瘤組織時,精子頭部可脫離精子,進入癌細胞。實驗中證實,精子頭部的安裝的微型架構,可促使精子運動速度降低43%,然進入癌細胞沒有什麼影響,未來可將此精子技術應用於婦科癌症治療。 然值得注意的是,這次科學家進行實驗的是使用「公牛精子」,然如果要使用人類男性的精子進行癌症治療,需考慮的問題還會更多,包括精子數量、攜帶藥物的種類劑量,另有人會擔心,這樣透過「精子治療」的女性是不是有可能會意外「懷孕」。 然這個新治療方法引發國際關注,因此方法和傳統癌症治療法相比,不會引起免疫系統反應,也不會造成其他不適或病症,也不至癌症患者的損傷正常細胞。因此醫療界也期盼這項研究能早日臨床應用,造福更多婦科癌症患者重獲健康! http://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/ 別浪費!男人精液「很珍貴」 研究:可助女性對抗癌症 ETtoday - ‎10 小時前‎ 癌症在台灣連續34年蟬聯「十大死因之首」,平均每天128人死於癌症,且100名女性中,就有4人會罹癌,又以子宮頸癌、卵巢癌、子宮內膜癌為大宗。現在科學家發現,男人每天製造出的「精液」有妙用,可改造為攜帶藥物的載具,成為女性對抗婦科癌症的新手段。   男性注意!精子別白白浪費德國研究:有望助女性抗癌 三立新聞網 (新聞發布) - ‎19 小時前‎ 女性福音!在當今眾多疾病中,癌症成為人類健康的頭號殺手,根據調查顯示,台灣每100名女性中,有4人會得到癌症,其中有近一半女性是罹患子宮頸癌、卵巢癌、子宮內膜癌等。面對女性的頭號殺手,除了手術外,抗癌藥物成為治療的根本,因此能否準確瞄準癌細胞 ...   男生注意!精子不要白白浪費德國研究:可助女性抗癌 東森新聞 (新聞發布) - ‎15 小時前‎ 精子是受孕過程中的一大主角,也是形成受精卵的重要部分。根據調查,台灣每100名女性中,就有4人會罹患癌症,其中近一半女性是罹患子宮頸癌、卵巢癌、子宮內膜癌等,除開刀動手術治療外,最新科學研究證實,男性精子竟能成為的藥物運輸載體,進而有效應用於 ...   Sperm Loaded with Drugs Could Target Gynecological Cancers Fitting sperm cells with a steering mechanism offers a new way to target treatments. by Emerging Technology from the arXiv   April 7, 2017           Delivering drugs to cancerous tissue is one of the more urgent medical issues of our time. The problems with drug delivery are many. These chemicals often become diluted in body fluids or absorbed by other organs. And even when they do reach their target, they cannot always penetrate cancerous tissue easily. So a better way to deliver drugs that overcomes these issues is urgently needed. Step forward Mariana Medina-Sánchez and pals from the Institute for Integrative Nanosciences in Germany. They’ve created a unique drug delivery system that uses sperm to carry the active ingredient into a tumor. Their new approach is designed specifically for diseases of the female reproductive tract such as gynecological cancer, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, and others. The system is simple in essence. Medina-Sánchez and co simply soak sperm in the active ingredient, which causes the sperm cells to take up surprisingly large doses. They then force the sperm to swim into a kind of mechanical harness—a self-tightening micromachined structure that attaches to the head of the sperm. The harness is coated in iron, which allows the sperm to be steered by an external magnetic field. So the sperm provides the propulsive power while a doctor can direct it to the tumor. The harness also has a quick release mechanism. When the device hits a surface, the force of the collision causes the harness to release its grip on the sperm which then swim away freely. The idea is that this happens when the sperm reaches the tumor, where it can then burrow into the tissue and into the cancer cells themselves. Medina-Sánchez and co have tested the mechanism in their lab. For these tests, they use bull sperm because it is a similar size to human sperm. They load the sperm with a standard chemotherapy drug called Doxorubicin and then attach the sperm to mechanical harnesses. They test the utility of the system in a variety of experiments in which the sperm swim toward and then enter a standard cancer model consisting of HeLa cells and HeLa spheroids, which simulate tumors themselves. The results make for interesting reading. The team found that the harness significantly slows down sperm, reducing its speed by 43 percent. However, it can still move and enter cancer cells. They show that the mechanism effectively kills cancer cells and that the sperms cells can penetrate the cancerous spheroids, helping to kill cells inside. That’s impressive work. Sperm has significant advantages over other drug delivery systems such as bacteria, which can trigger significant immune responses. And unlike bacteria, sperm cells do not proliferate to form colonies that can cause other problems. Sperm have other advantages, too. They protect the drug from enzymes that can degrade it, and they do not dump their load unexpectedly, which is a potential problem with drugs carried in molecular cages called micelles. Of course, the work raises important questions that Medina-Sánchez and co will need to tackle. For example, after delivering the sperm, the mechanical harnesses play no further part in the treatment, and understanding the way the body deals with and degrades these devices will be important. Then there is the question of how well the amount of drug can be controlled. That’s related to the number of sperm that complete the journey and how much active ingredient they each carry and deliver. That will need to be carefully calibrated. Finally, the team also needs to test this mechanism with human sperm. And that raises the question of ethics—whose sperm will be used for this kind of treatment, and what of the potential for pregnancy? If these questions can be satisfactorily answered, the technique has significant potential. Every year, some 100,000 women in the U.S. are diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Better treatments are urgently needed.  “Sperm-hybrid systems may be envisioned to be applied in in situ cancer diagnosis and treatment in the near future,” say Medina-Sánchez and co. Ref: arxiv.org/abs/1703.08510: Sperm-Hybrid Micromotor for Drug Delivery in the Female Reproductive Tract https://www.technologyreview.com/s/
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