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文章 | 醫療新知 | 醫療新知
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患上乳癌後,妳要怎樣照顧自己的身體?     治療乳癌可能是一個漫長的過程,但是在生活上和治療上都有一些方法可以助妳減少不適,讓妳能較安然和積極地渡過各個療程。     • 多看多問,認識妳的疾病,了解它的治療方法。 • 和妳的醫護團隊充分合作。 • 和妳的醫生安排定期覆診和檢查的時間表,以便監察病情進展。 • 如妳出現持續性的骨痛、氣促、肢體麻痺無力等不適,應立刻告訴醫生。 • 按照醫生的指引照顧好日常飲食。 • 接受外科手術後,應避免搬動重物,以免手臂再受損傷,影響復原進度。 • 按照醫生和物理治療師的指示進行恆常運動,例如進行簡單的手臂運動來鍛鍊上肢,以保持肩關節靈活及減少水腫。     妳可以主動尋找關於妳的疾病的資訊,多看多聽不同專家的意見,了解不同治療的利弊,為妳將要面對的抗癌旅程和結果做好準備。在選擇治療的時候要有獨立思考,勇敢表達自己的想法和意願,因為只有妳才最清楚自身的需要。主動參與治療過程或許能讓妳感到多點把握和信心,少點擔憂和焦慮。           如有興趣了解更多關於乳癌的資訊, 請參閱:http://her2morrow.com.hk/         安全報告免責聲明 此平台並不旨在用於記錄或報告不良藥物事件資訊,如您懷疑有任何副作用,請向您的醫生或藥劑師諮詢和報告。 以上健康教育資訊由羅氏大藥廠香港有限公司提供 (NPM-HK-0074-11-2017)  

奇點網 / Medicalxpress

《自然》重磅:肝癌大突破!拉斯克獎大牛發現全新抑癌蛋白,有望突破肝癌診療的瓶頸 | 科學大發現   在癌症這個殺手家族中,肝癌可以排得上全球老二了。在我國,肝癌也是高發癌種,而且由於其發病隱匿、疾病進展快,患者的預後極不樂觀,新的診療方法迫在眉睫。   本周的《自然》雜誌上刊登了一項來自瑞士巴塞爾大學的研究,Michael N. Hall帶領的研究團隊發現了一種全新的抑癌蛋白LHPP,這種蛋白的喪失促進了腫瘤的生長,增加LHPP表達則能夠有效抑制癌細胞增殖並阻止肝功能損傷[1]!除此之外,LHPP水準也與疾病負擔和患者預後有關,研究者認為可以作為診斷和預後的生物指標。     本項研究的通訊作者Michael N. Hall, 也是雷帕黴素靶蛋白(TOR)信號通路的發現者     在原發性肝癌中,90%屬於肝細胞癌(HCC)[2],而50%的肝細胞癌又都涉及mTOR信號通路[3]。研究者通過特異性敲除小鼠的PTEN、TSC1啟動mTOR通路,改造小鼠在6周大時出現肝腫大,20周則完全發展為肝細胞癌。經過對小鼠肝臟的分子特徵分析,這種小鼠肝癌特徵幾乎與人類肝癌特徵一樣[4,5]。研究者把這種小鼠叫做L-dKO小鼠。     L-dKO小鼠(右)會自發生長肝細胞癌       隨後,研究者對20周大的L-dKO小鼠的腫瘤組織和正常的健康小鼠肝組織進行了蛋白質組學分析,涉及4500種蛋白。功夫不負苦心人,研究者最終篩選出了一種差異很大的蛋白——LHPP。這種蛋白在健康組織中可以正常表達,在癌組織中卻幾乎不存在。   經過免疫組化方法驗證,LHPP是一種組氨酸磷酸酶,也就是從蛋白中解除磷酸基團的酶。此前發現了唯二兩種在哺乳動物中相關的酶是NME1、NME2(也稱為NDPKA、NDPKB)。這是兩種磷酸激酶,相應地,在肝癌組織中表達有所升高。   研究者分別對不同癌症發展階段的小鼠進行了蛋白表達分析,發現隨著癌症的發展,LHPP表達逐漸降低、乃至消失,同時NME1、NME2則與mTOR一同保持著很高的水準。而腫瘤周邊的非癌組織中,LHPP水準正常。另一方面,癌組織的磷酸化水準則整體升高了。       癌組織和非癌組織中各蛋白水準的比較       但是這也不能說明LHPP在肝癌發展中到底處於怎樣的地位,到底是因是果?於是研究者利用腺病毒轉染,重新將LHPP基因導入了L-dKO小鼠中。在小鼠8周大時,通過尾靜脈注射,確保小鼠中LHPP蛋白會過量表達。   在小鼠20周大時,研究者對小鼠肝臟進行了檢測,結果很令人驚訝!導入了LHPP基因的小鼠肝臟腫瘤數量、大小都大大降低!研究者還對小鼠的丙氨酸氨基轉移酶(ALT)、天冬氨酸氨基轉移酶(AST)、乳酸鹽脫氫酶(LDH)等肝損傷特徵指標進行了檢測,結果也顯示,LHPP蛋白對肝功能有良好的保護作用。     這足以說明LHPP是一種新的抑癌蛋白!   轉染LHPP的小鼠明顯腫瘤數量較少,體積也較小       小鼠實驗畢竟是小鼠實驗,LHPP的抑癌作用在人類中是否也存在呢?研究者分析了20例肝細胞癌患者的組織樣本,並和它們自己的非癌組織樣本進行對比,發現癌組織中的LHPP水準有了大幅度的下降。   在小鼠實驗中,LHPP的水準既然會隨癌症發展變化,那麼是不是說明LHPP水準可能與臨床指標有關呢?對前人公佈的研究資料[6]進行二次分析,研究者發現,與小鼠研究一致,低LHPP表達與更重的疾病負擔、更短的生存期有關!低LHPP表達患者的中位生存期足足減少了近兩年!       無病生存期(上)和整體生存期(下)       研究者也分析了癌症基因圖譜(TCGA)和國際癌症基因組聯盟(ICGC)的資料,包括49種LHPP突變,其中24.5%發現於食管癌、頭頸癌、胃癌、膀胱癌、乳腺癌、皮膚癌、肝癌、肺癌、胰腺癌等多種癌症。這些突變的形式均屬於功能缺失型突變。這項資料也再次說明LHPP是一種抑癌基因[7]。   除此以外,也曾有研究者發現LHPP與口腔癌、咽喉癌、急性淋巴細胞白血病有關[8,9]。   以上研究資料表明,LHPP是一種新發現的抑癌蛋白,它的缺失會導致整體蛋白組氨酸磷酸化增加,並進一步促進癌症的發展和其他疾病。   至於為什麼組氨酸磷酸化會與癌症有關呢?研究者檢測的組氨酸磷酸化蛋白質包括關鍵的DNA複製因數、p53抑制劑、以及會誘發突變的胞苷脫氨酶等等與癌症相關的蛋白。缺乏LHPP導致的整體磷酸化增加,很有可能就啟動了有重要功能的通路,自然很容易導致癌症發生了。       参考资料: [1] https://www.nature.com/articles/nature26140 [2] Llovet, J. M. et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Nat. Rev. Dis. Primers 2,16018–16023 (2016). [3] Schulze, K. et al. Exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinomas identifies new mutational signatures and potential therapeutic targets. Nat. Genet. 47,505–511 (2015). [4] Kenerson, H. L. et al. Akt and mTORC1 have different roles during liver tumorigenesis in mice. Gastroenterology 144, 1055–1065 (2013). [5] Guri, Y. et al. mTORC2 promotes tumorigenesis via lipid synthesis. Cancer Cell 32, 807–823 (2017). [6] Makowska, Z. et al. Gene expression analysis of biopsy samples reveals critical limitations of transcriptome-based molecular classifcations of hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Pathol. Clin. Res. 2, 80–92 (2016). [7] Vogelstein, B. et al. Cancer genome landscapes. Science 339, 1546–1558(2013). [8] Vijayakrishnan, J. et al. A genome-wide association study identifes risk loci for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia at 10q26.13 and 12q23.1. Leukemia 31, 573–579 (2017). [9] Lesseur, C. et al. Genome-wide association analyses identify new susceptibility loci for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer. Nat. Genet. 48, 1544–1550 (2016).         Researchers discover new anti-cancer protein March 21, 2018, University of Basel     Scanning electron microscopy image of cancer cells. Credit: University of Basel, Biozentrum/Swiss Nanoscience Institute     An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in Nature that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.     The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled in Switzerland. Hepatocellular carcinoma is usually diagnosed at a very late stage when the liver is already severely damaged and hence overall prognosis is poor. Detection of the anti-cancer protein LHPP as a biomarker may allow clinicians to provide better treatment options.     New anti-cancer protein LHPP   Liver tumors develop from mutated cells that grow and proliferate uncontrollably. Anti-cancer proteins, so-called tumor suppressors, prevent uncontrolled cell growth. Tumor suppressors are often defective in cancer cells. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall, Biozentrum of the University of Basel, have now discovered a new, so far unknown tumor suppressor, the protein LHPP. In their study, they show that the loss of LHPP promotes tumor growth and reduces the chance of survival of cancer patients. LHPP could potentially be used as a prognostic biomarker.   The researchers generated a mouse model for hepatocellular carcinoma by activating mTOR signaling specifically in the liver. They analyzed a total of more than 4,000 proteins, comparing them in healthy and tumor tissue. An enzyme emerged as the top favorite: the histidine phosphatase LHPP. "It is striking that LHPP is present in healthy tissue and completely absent in tumor tissue," says first author Sravanth Hindupur. Re-introduction of the genetic information for LHPP by the researchers prevents the formation of tumors and maintains liver function.     Loss of LHPP in cancer patients   "Similar to the mouse model, we also saw a striking decrease in LHPP levels in tumors of patients with liver cancer," says Hindupur. Additionally, both disease severity and life expectancy correlate with LHPP levels. With complete loss of the tumor suppressor, cancer patients die on average two years earlier. LHPP is useful as a biomarker to classify tumors.      Phosphorylation important for tumorigenesis   LHPP is a phosphatase that removes histidine-linked phosphate groups from proteins. Like all amino acids, histidine is a basic component of proteins. Histidine phosphorylation of proteins has been poorly investigated due to the lack of suitable tools. "Tony Hunter, from the Salk Institute in the USA, has provided us with new tools to analyze histidine phosphorylation. We have now been able to visualize a whole new layer of complexity in tumor formation," says Hindupur.   Due to the absence of LHPP, global protein histidine phosphorylation is increased, which can lead to activation of several important functions and uncontrolled cell proliferation. This absence promotes the growth of tumors via increasing histidine-phosphorylated proteins. The tumor suppressor LHPP may also play a role in the development of other cancers.     More information: Sravanth K. Hindupur et al, The protein histidine phosphatase LHPP is a tumour suppressor, Nature (2018). DOI: 10.1038/nature26140       文章來自: 奇點網 / Medicalxpress 中: https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/kaigcoHe-pZJSDSANKRO3A Eng: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-03-anti-cancer-protein.html        





HER2 型乳癌是什麼?               在本港,約 20%乳癌個案是「較惡」的 HER2 型乳癌。HER2 (第二型人類表皮生長因子受體)自然地存在於乳房細胞內,是一種附在細胞表面的受體。正常細胞會製造少量的 HER2 受體,用作接收生長因子,將生長訊息由細胞外傳送至細胞內,以控制細胞生長。   當乳腺細胞有過量 HER2 受體,令細胞不受控制地增生,最終演化成腫瘤,這就是 HER2 型 (又稱 HER2 過度表現或 HER2 陽性) 乳癌。與其他種類的乳癌相比,HER2 型乳癌腫瘤的生長及擴散速度比較快,在有對抗 HER2 的標靶藥物治療之前,患者的存活期一般較短。   HER2 型乳癌患者可接受針對 HER2 受體的標靶藥物治療。抗 HER2 標靶藥物分為口服、靜脈注射和皮下注射三大類,可從癌細胞表面或進入癌細胞內,截斷 HER2 受體的生長訊息傳遞,從而抑制癌細胞的生長。目前已有數種針對 HER2 型乳癌的標靶藥物,醫生會根據患者的不同情況,去選擇最合適的標靶藥物組合。         如有興趣了解更多關於乳癌的資訊, 請參閱:http://her2morrow.com.hk         安全報告免責聲明 此平台並不旨在用於記錄或報告不良藥物事件資訊,如您懷疑有任何副作用,請向您的醫生或藥劑師諮詢和報告。 以上健康教育資訊由羅氏大藥廠香港有限公司提供 (NPM-HK-0074-11-2017)


新一代抗CD20抗體藥物助濾泡性淋巴癌復發患者延長壽命     淋巴癌(Lymphoma), 是血液系統的惡性疾病之一, 可分為何傑金氏淋巴癌 (Hodgkin’s lymphoma) 和非何傑金氏淋巴癌(non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma), 後者可根據其生長及擴散的速度再分為慢性和急性兩大類1。 濾泡性淋巴癌是最常見的慢性淋巴癌, 好發於年齡約50多歲的患者,最常見的症狀為頸部,腹股溝或腋下淋巴結腫脹。   隨著醫學的進步發展,醫學界在濾泡性淋巴癌的治療上已取得不俗的成績。 現時的治療方法主要有三種,分別是放射治療,化學治療以及較新的標靶治療3。標靶藥物利妥昔單抗(rituximab), 透過與B淋巴細胞表面抗原CD20結合,引起免疫反應,令癌細胞凋亡2。 在化療配合利妥昔單抗的治療下,濾泡性淋巴癌的存活期有了明顯的提高,很多病人可存活長達15年, 甚至更久。   濾泡性淋巴癌大多無法治癒,即使它對治療的反應良好,仍然會不間斷地復發,使得患者需要在他們的一生中多次接受治療。根據個人病情,復發後的患者可選擇單用利妥昔單抗或與化學治療/放射治療並用。隨著新藥物的不斷問世, 患者尚有不少新葯可以嘗試, 其中包括新一代抗CD20抗體藥物阿托珠單抗(obinutuzumab)4。 阿托珠單抗是在利妥昔單抗的基礎上,通過分子工程對抗體進行改造和修飾,從而增強抗體與免疫細胞的親和力,加強殺滅癌細胞的能力,令治療效果得到進一步提升5。 研究證實,用於接受利妥昔單抗治療後無效或病情出現惡化的濾泡性淋巴癌患者,阿托珠單抗配合抗癌藥苯達莫司汀 (bendamustine)作治療,及後再單用阿托珠單抗作持續治療有助延長患者的存活期, 降低病情惡化風險,這種合併療法的療效較單一使用苯達莫司汀的理想6。       安全報告免責聲明   此平台並不旨在用於記錄或報告不良藥物事件資訊,如您懷疑有任何副作用,請向您的醫生或藥劑師諮詢和報告。   以上健康教育資訊由羅氏大藥廠香港有限公司提供 (NPM-HK-0079-01-2018)   Valid until 29/11/2019 or until change is required in accordance with the regulatory requirements, whichever comes first.       References: 1. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®). Patient Version. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0032605/.   2. Johnson P and Glennie M. The mechanism of action of rituximab in the elimination of tumor cells. Semin Oncol 2003;20(1 Suppl 2):3-8.   3. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®). Health Professional Version. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0032836   4. Gazyva (obinutuzumab) [Hong Kong Product Information]. Hong Kong. Roche; July 2016   5. Mössner E, Brünker P, Moser S, et al. Increasing the efficacy of CD20 antibody therapy through the engineering of a new type II anti-CD20 antibody with enhanced direct and immune effector cell-mediated B-cell cytotoxicity. Blood. 2010 Jun 3;115(22):4393-402.   6. Sehn LH, Chua N, Mayer J, et al. Obinutuzumab plus bendamustine versus bendamustine monotherapy in patients with rituximab-refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (GADOLIN): a randomised, controlled, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Aug;17(8):1081-1093.  
明報

【了解乳癌】乳癌復發擴散 新殺手鐧再抗戰         【明報專訊】對付癌症,醫生法寶盡出:手術、化療、電療、標靶治療,務求殺滅癌細胞;但當癌症復發、擴散,用上第二、三、四線化療效果不顯注,標靶治療出現抗藥性……醫生就要宣布投降?   當癌細胞步步進逼,醫生還有什麼殺手鐧?       新趨勢:荷爾蒙合併抑制劑治療減副作用   ■個案 遇上高毒性腫瘤     現年40歲的張女士,和丈夫育有3個小孩,生活本是十分滿足快樂。4年前的聖誕,她發現左邊乳房出現了一硬塊,起初不為意,但硬塊生長得很快,數周內長到幾厘米大。乳腺外科醫生馬上安排穿刺化驗和乳腺造影檢查,報告很快就確定了張女士患上乳癌,直徑約5厘米。她選擇全乳腺切除術,術中發現腋下淋巴有癌細胞,故此腋下淋巴腺亦做了清除手術。   張女士的病理分析發現,腫瘤直徑達5.5厘米,腫瘤組織學屬於毒性較高的低分化類型(Grade 3),腋下淋巴群中有兩個受癌細胞侵入。腫瘤生物標記結果為荷爾蒙受體(ER+、PR+)陽性,HER2陰性,顯示癌細胞生長速度的「Ki-67細胞增殖因子指數」高達70%(普通乳癌中位數約15%)。   張女士的腫瘤分化度低,復發和擴散風險較高,因此,手術後張女士接受了8個周期(16星期)輔助化學治療和放射治療,亦開始了荷爾蒙治療。     術後兩年復發 擴散全身   完成化療和放射治療後,張女士按建議服用荷爾蒙藥,生活漸回正軌。可是兩年後,張女士持續咳嗽,運動後盆骨也持續疼痛。醫生馬上安排全身正電子掃描,不幸發現廣泛的腫瘤復發及擴散,影響多段脊骨、盆骨、肋骨、肺和肝臟。   張女士和家人都希望盡快開始治療。醫療團隊也認同應盡快開始系統性治療,但需要先再抽取腫瘤樣本化驗。研究顯示,腫瘤生物標記在乳癌復發時有大約40%會出現變化,當中有一半會影響治療用藥的決定。在張女士身上,團隊最擔心是腫瘤的荷爾蒙受體由陽性轉為陰性,如此的話荷爾蒙治療就不再適用。   團隊在分析影像後決定在盆骨抽取化驗。病理醫生在樣本進行免疫組織學化驗,確定腫瘤源頭來自乳癌,且荷爾蒙受體維持陽性。     文:林泰忠(香港大學臨牀腫瘤科臨牀助理教授) 圖:受訪者提供 編輯:王翠麗     文章來自: 明報 https://health.mingpao.com/?p=12034


香港01

【以毒攻毒】英國大學研究利用病毒 刺激免疫系統攻擊腦腫瘤細胞 撰文: 張子傑 發佈日期:2018-01-04 22:24 最後更新日期:2018-01-04 22:24             英國一隊醫學團隊研究治療腦癌的新方式——注入病毒,刺激人體免疫系統攻擊癌細胞。這個「以毒攻毒」的方法,初步已見成效,科研人員正計劃進行更大型臨床實驗。     腦腫瘤對於大眾來說,聽起來令人絕望,通常末期腦腫瘤患者只有數月的存活期,治療方面離不開手術和化療。最近英國有大學研究新療法,以病毒刺激免疫系統,再攻擊癌細胞,成效顯著。   這個研究由英國利茲大學(University of Leeds)腫瘤科專家負責,原理是將呼腸孤病毒(reovirus)以注射點滴方式進入血管,再接近癌細胞,刺激人體免疫系統抵抗癌細胞。   研究人員表示,腦腫瘤細胞和人體細胞相似,而且擅於欺騙免疫系統,因此難於偵測,反而病毒易於被免疫系統發現,可望成為消滅腫瘤的王牌。       傳統化療方式最大的難處,是腦部血腦屏障的特殊結構影響藥物作用的速度與效率,今次研究的最大突破是發現病毒不受這個天然限制影響,可以直接滲入腦部,大為提升治療成效。 研究人員找來9位即將接受腦腫瘤移除手術的病人參與,在手術前數天注入病毒,其後發現所有參加者的腦內均有病毒刺激免疫系統的跡象,連有「殺手」之稱的T細胞也有參與攻擊癌細胞,結果令人滿意。       報告指出,注射病毒只會引起像感冒徵狀的副作用,對於病人來說,影響可謂非常輕微。     研究結果刊登於《科學轉化醫學期刊》(Science Translational Medicine),團隊將會展開更大規模的臨床試驗,以改善和延長患者的生命為目標。         文章來自: 香港01 https://www.hk01.com/%E5%9C%8B%E9%9A%9B/146648
物聯網 - 智慧城市 / 3Dprint.com

Cellink以3D列印製造腫瘤以對抗癌症 陳智德 2018-01-24       Cellink希望能夠用實驗用腫瘤取代大量的動物測試。Cellink       瑞典生物科技公司Cellink設計出生物墨水(biological ink),可被各種不同3D列印機用於製造不同種類的細胞組織,目前正研究以3D列印製造腫瘤以對抗癌症。此將能看到實際上腫瘤如何生長,以及如何對不同治療做出反應。     Cellink的最新活動已引發3D列印界內外的極大興趣。該公司日前宣布,已與法國公司CTI Biotech簽署合作協議,製造可用於藥品檢測的腫瘤。透過將生物墨水與病患癌細胞混合的方式,在不危害人體健康下進行對腫瘤的深入研究。     目前Cellink生產生物列印的鼻子及耳朵,用於化妝品與醫學研究,並製造由人體器官細胞組成的立方體,讓研究人員對進行實驗。     製造新藥對抗癌症既是公眾的優先考慮,但因癌症細胞存活於病患體內,病患並非皆能接受試驗性地服用新藥對抗癌症,使得新藥發展緩慢,並可能會扼殺創新概念,或為他人的進展製造障礙,因此製造用於藥品檢測的腫瘤擁有深遠的意義。     Cellink盼未來能列印人體器官,儘管該公司承認可能還要再等15~20年。使用生物墨水製造的腫瘤進行測試,能讓研究人員擺脫許多道德問題,並降低此類研究活動的相關成本。     Cellink希望能夠用實驗用腫瘤取代大量的動物測試,不僅可開發處理癌症腫瘤的新方式,且能讓醫學研究人員對個人化的癌症治療方法展開研究,減少治療造成的副作用。     該公司創辦人Erik Gatenholm與Hector Martinez Avila也創造售價最低僅10,000美元的組織3D列印機,引發大量的需求。       Cellink Turns to 3D Printing Tumors to Combat Cancer by Hannah Rose Mendoza | Jan 9, 2018 | 3D Printing, Medical 3D Printing, Science & Technology |     It may seem counterintuitive, but the Swedish biotech company Cellink is actually fabricating tumors in an effort to combat cancer. The company, which exploded on the scene in 2016, has risen to fame as a result of their biological ink, designed to be used by a variety of 3D printers to create different types of cell tissues. The founders, Erik Gatenholm and Hector Martinez Avila, then went on to create a tissue printing 3D printer that sells for only $10k and the demand has been phenomenal.       The market for bioprinting is expected to triple between 2016 and 2021, to around $1,33 bn. [Image courtesy of Cellink]       The company has been in the news so often, it’s nearly exhausting trying to keep up, but their latest activity is one that has garnered great interest both in and outside of the 3D printing community. The company announced on Monday that they have signed a partnership with CTI Biotech, a French company based in Lyon, to fabricate tumors that can be used for pharmaceuticals testing. The ability to mix their own inks with cells from patients’ cancers will allow them to produce tumors that can be subjected to intense research without endangering human lives. As Gatenholm explained in an interview with Business Insider Nordic:     “You will be able to see how a tumor grows and how it would respond to different treatments. It’s a very relevant and a realistic model for research.”     Cellink sells both the 3D printers and the bio-ink. The printers are priced between $10,000 and $39,000. [Image courtesy of Cellink]       Currently, Cellink produces bioprinted noses and ears for cosmetics and medical research, as well as creating cubes comprised of cells that can allow researchers to experiment with human organ cells. Branching out into the production of tumors is less of a leap and more of an expansion, and the implications are profound. Developing new medicines to combat cancer is both a high priority for the public and something that can only necessarily proceed slowly as the cancer itself lives inside of a person, who cannot simply be subject to any and all ideas about what might combat the disease. This means that a slow, cautious approach can strangle some innovative ideas or simply create interminable roadblocks to the advancement of others.   The ability to use bioink to create tumors frees researchers of the many ethical concerns associated with testing as well as reduces the costs associated with such research activities. Currently, a great deal of the medical testing being undertaken to advance cancer treatments occurs on animals, something that Cellink hopes will be able to be replaced with these made-in-the-lab tumors. The driving idea is that not only will new methods of addressing cancerous tumors be able to be developed, but that also medical researchers can begin to explore personalized means of delivering cancer treatments, hopefully with fewer negative side effects.       Cellink’s founders Hector Martinez Avila (left) and Erik Gatenholm (right), with Cellink CCO Ariel Kramer at Nasdaq First North for the IPO. [Image courtesy of Business Insider Nordic]       This effort is part of Cellink’s mission to be a global leader in bioprinting and to change the face of medicine as we know it. In addition, they hope to one day be able to print human organs, although, Gatenholm admits, that possibility is still most likely 15 to 20 years in the future. Interest in their ideas has been strong and confidence in their company continues to grow, as demonstrated by the fact that only 10 months after the company was founded, there was a 1000% oversubscription to their IPO. During their first year, they have already reached profitability, something not common for tech startups.   What do you think of this news? Let us know your thoughts; join the discussion of this and other 3D printing topics at 3DPrintBoard.com or share your thoughts below.       文章來自: 物聯網 - 智慧城市 / 3Dprint.com 中: https://www.digitimes.com.tw/iot/article.asp?cat=158&id=0000522680_X9U7ROVH7DAP4D1R7EOV4 ENG : https://3dprint.com/199654/cellink-3d-printing-tumors/
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